Articles 46 to 53 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties define the only means by which contracts may be declared invalid – which are considered unenforceable and void under international law. A contract is declared void either on the basis of the circumstances in which a Contracting State acceded to the treaty or on the basis of the content of the treaty itself. Invalidation is distinct from revocation, suspension or termination (mentioned above), all of which involve a change in the consent of the parties to a previously valid contract and not the invalidation of such consent. Agreements can be divided into two groups: those dealing with education as well as several other areas, and those that are essentially limited to education. The former largely correspond to agreements adopted under the auspices of the United Nations and the latter to those adopted under the auspices of UNESCO. The following is a complete list of the various agreements with brief comments on some substantive aspects. Particular attention will be paid to treaties, as they represent the strongest commitment of countries. Since the Arctic region consists of a large ocean surrounded by land, the law of the sea is particularly relevant in this context. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is an international agreement that defines a comprehensive legal system that clarifies the rights and obligations of States with respect to the use of the seas and oceans and their resources. The Treaty therefore regulates issues such as navigation rights, territorial maritime boundaries, economic jurisdiction, the legal status of resources on the seabed beyond the borders of national jurisdiction, the passage of ships through narrow straits, the conservation and management of living marine resources, the protection of the marine environment, a marine research regime and, more uniquely, a binding procedure for settling disputes between States.
n does not ratify the Convention. Several international agreements deal with Issues specific to the Arctic and/or are particularly relevant to the treatment of various Arctic issues. These agreements have been briefly presented here, in chronological order and with links to the original texts (click on the title to be redirected to the full text). As their titles indicate, the various declarations can be divided into two broad categories: those that focus on human rights as such and/or the rights of .B a particular group of people (e.g. children, women, the mentally handicapped and the disabled, persons belonging to different types of minorities) who are considered particularly vulnerable and supportive; and those that focus on specific aspects of the international context (e.g. B, peace, development and environment). Some of the declarations in the first category were then followed by treaties (e.B. rights of the child, elimination of discrimination against women).
Second-category statements were less likely to be followed through treaties, in part because they dealt with issues that were much more open to ideological and political disagreements between countries. Particularly during the Cold War, United Nations declarations and resolutions on peace were controversial as to the relative priority to be given to peace over human rights. However, statements on the environment and social development were relatively unsyneversial. Key highlights of the Minamata Convention on Mercury include the prohibition of new mercury mines, the phasing out of existing mines, measures to control air emissions, and the international regulation of the informal sector for artisanal and small-scale gold mining. The consent of a party to a contract is void if it has been given by an agent or entity authorized to do so under the national laws of that State. States are reluctant to investigate the internal affairs and processes of other States, and therefore, a “manifest violation” is necessary for it to be “objectively obvious to any State dealing with the issue”. .